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Titus agrees, although Lavinia is already betrothed to Saturninus's brother, Bassianus, who refuses to give her up. Titus's sons tell Titus that Bassianus is in the right under Roman law , but Titus refuses to listen, accusing them all of treason.

A scuffle breaks out, during which Titus kills his own son, Mutius. Saturninus then denounces the Andronici family for their effrontery and shocks Titus by marrying Tamora.

Putting into motion her plan for revenge, Tamora advises Saturninus to pardon Bassianus and the Andronici family, which he reluctantly does.

During a royal hunt the following day, Aaron persuades Demetrius and Chiron to kill Bassianus, so they may rape Lavinia.

They do so, throwing Bassianus's body into a pit and dragging Lavinia deep into the forest before violently raping her.

To keep her from revealing what has happened, they cut out her tongue and cut off her hands. Meanwhile, Aaron writes a forged letter , which frames Titus's sons Martius and Quintus for the murder of Bassianus.

Horrified at the death of his brother, Saturninus arrests Martius and Quintus, and sentences them to death. Some time later, Marcus discovers the mutilated Lavinia and takes her to her father, who is still shocked at the accusations levelled at his sons, and upon seeing Lavinia, he is overcome with grief.

Aaron then visits Titus and falsely tells him that Saturninus will spare Martius and Quintus if either Titus, Marcus, or Titus's remaining son, Lucius, cuts off one of their hands and sends it to him.

Titus has Aaron cut off his Titus's left hand and sends it to the emperor but, in return, a messenger brings Titus Martius and Quintus's severed heads, along with Titus's own severed hand.

Desperate for revenge, Titus orders Lucius to flee Rome and raise an army among their former enemy, the Goths.

Later, Lavinia writes the names of her attackers in the dirt, using a stick held with her mouth and between her mutilated arms.

Meanwhile, Tamora secretly gives birth to a mixed-race child, fathered by Aaron. Aaron kills the nurse to keep the child's race a secret and flees with the baby to save it from Saturninus' inevitable wrath.

Thereafter, Lucius, marching on Rome with an army, captures Aaron and threatens to hang the infant. In order to save the baby, Aaron reveals the entire revenge plot to Lucius.

Back in Rome, Titus's behaviour suggests he might be deranged. Convinced of his madness, Tamora, Chiron, and Demetrius approach him, dressed as the spirits of Revenge , Murder, and Rape.

Tamora as Revenge tells Titus that she will grant him revenge on all of his enemies if he can convince Lucius to postpone the imminent attack on Rome.

Titus agrees and sends Marcus to invite Lucius to a reconciliatory feast. Revenge then offers to invite the Emperor and Tamora as well, and is about to leave when Titus insists that Rape and Murder Chiron and Demetrius, respectively stay with him.

When Tamora is gone, Titus has them restrained, cuts their throats and drains their blood into a basin held by Lavinia.

Titus morbidly tells Lavinia that he plans to "play the cook", grind the bones of Demetrius and Chiron into powder, and bake their heads.

The next day, during the feast at his house, Titus asks Saturninus if a father should kill his daughter when she has been raped.

When Saturninus answers that he should, Titus kills Lavinia and tells Saturninus of the rape. When the Emperor calls for Chiron and Demetrius, Titus reveals that they have been baked in the pie Tamora has just been eating.

Titus then kills Tamora and is immediately killed by Saturninus, who is subsequently killed by Lucius to avenge his father's death.

Lucius is then proclaimed Emperor. He orders that Titus and Lavinia be laid in their family tomb, that Saturninus be given a state burial, that Tamora's body be thrown to the wild beasts outside the city, and that Aaron be buried chest-deep and left to die of thirst and starvation.

Aaron, however, is unrepentant to the end, regretting only that he had not done more evil in his life. The story of Titus Andronicus is fictional, not historical, unlike Shakespeare's other Roman plays, Julius Caesar , Antony and Cleopatra , and Coriolanus , all of which are based on real historical events and people.

Even the time in which Titus is set may not be based on a real historical period. According to the prose version of the play see below , the events are "set in the time of Theodosius ", who ruled from to On the other hand, the general setting appears to be what Clifford Huffman describes as "late-Imperial Christian Rome", possibly during the reign of Justinian I — We know it is a later Rome because the emperor is routinely called Caesar ; because the characters are constantly alluding to Tarquin , Lucretia , and Brutus, suggesting that they learned about Brutus' new founding of Rome from the same literary sources we do, Livy and Plutarch.

For example, Jonathan Bate has pointed out that the play begins with Titus returning from a successful ten-year campaign against the Goths, as if at the height of the Roman Empire, but ends with Goths invading Rome, as if at its death.

Spencer argues that "the play does not assume a political situation known to Roman history; it is, rather a summary of Roman politics.

It is not so much that any particular set of political institutions is assumed in Titus , but rather that it includes all the political institutions that Rome ever had.

In his efforts to fashion general history into a specific fictional story, Shakespeare may have consulted the Gesta Romanorum , a well known thirteenth-century collection of tales, legends, myths, and anecdotes written in Latin , which took figures and events from history and spun fictional tales around them.

However, it is also possible to determine more specific sources for the play. The primary source for the rape and mutilation of Lavinia, as well as Titus' subsequent revenge, is Ovid's Metamorphoses c.

AD 8 , which is featured in the play itself when Lavinia uses it to help explain to Titus and Marcus what happened to her during the attack.

Despite ill omens , Philomela's sister, Procne , marries Tereus of Thrace and has a son for him, Itys. After five years in Thrace, Procne yearns to see her sister again, so she persuades Tereus to travel to Athens and accompany Philomela back to Thrace.

Tereus does so, but he soon begins to lust after Philomela. When she refuses his advances, he drags her into a forest and rapes her.

He then cuts out her tongue to prevent her from telling anyone of the incident and returns to Procne, telling her that Philomela is dead.

However, Philomela weaves a tapestry , in which she names Tereus as her assailant, and has it sent to Procne.

The sisters meet in the forest and together plot their revenge. They kill Itys and cook his body in a pie, which Procne then serves to Tereus.

During the meal, Philomela reveals herself, showing Itys' head to Tereus and telling him what they have done. For the scene where Lavinia reveals her rapists by writing in the sand, Shakespeare may have used a story from the first book of Metamorphoses ; the tale of the rape of Io by Zeus , where, to prevent her from divulging the story, he turns her into a cow.

Upon encountering her father , she attempts to tell him who she is but is unable to do so until she thinks to scratch her name in the dirt using her hoof.

Titus' revenge may also have been influenced by Seneca 's play Thyestes , written in the first century AD. In the mythology of Thyestes, which is the basis for Seneca's play, Thyestes , son of Pelops , King of Pisa , who, along with his brother Atreus , was exiled by Pelops for the murder of their half-brother, Chrysippus.

They take up refuge in Mycenae and soon ascend to co-inhabit the throne. However, each becomes jealous of the other, and Thyestes tricks Atreus into electing him as the sole king.

Determined to re-attain the throne, Atreus enlists the aid of Zeus and Hermes , and has Thyestes banished from Mycenae. Atreus subsequently discovers that his wife, Aerope , had been having an affair with Thyestes, and he vows revenge.

He asks Thyestes to return to Mycenae with his family, telling him that all past animosities are forgotten.

However, when Thyestes returns, Atreus secretly kills Thyestes' sons. He cuts off their hands and heads, and cooks the rest of their bodies in a pie.

At a reconciliatory feast, Atreus serves Thyestes the pie in which his sons have been baked. As Thyestes finishes his meal, Atreus produces the hands and heads, revealing to the horrified Thyestes what he has done.

Another specific source for the final scene is discernible when Titus asks Saturninus if a father should kill his daughter when she has been raped.

This is a reference to the story of Verginia from Livy's Ab urbe condita c. She rejects Claudius' advances, enraging him, and he has her abducted.

However, both Icilius and Verginia's father, famed centurion Lucius Verginius, are respected figures and Claudius is forced to legally defend his right to hold Verginia.

At the Forum , Claudius threatens the assembly with violence, and Verginius' supporters flee. Seeing that defeat is imminent, Verginius asks Claudius if he may speak to his daughter alone, to which Claudius agrees.

However, Verginius stabs Verginia, determining that her death is the only way he can secure her freedom. For the scene where Aaron tricks Titus into cutting off one of his hands, the primary source was probably an unnamed popular tale about a Moor's vengeance, published in various languages throughout the sixteenth century an English version entered into the Stationers' Register in has not survived.

The servant goes to the moated tower where the man's wife and children live, and rapes the wife. Her screams bring her husband, but the Moor pulls up the drawbridge before the nobleman can gain entry.

The Moor then kills both children on the battlements in full view of the man. The nobleman pleads with the Moor that he will do anything to save his wife, and the Moor demands he cut off his nose.

The man does so, but the Moor kills the wife anyway, and the nobleman dies of shock. The Moor then flings himself from the battlements to avoid punishment.

Shakespeare also drew on various sources for the names of many of his characters. Jonathan Bate speculates that the name Andronicus could have come from Andronicus V Palaeologus , co-emperor of Byzantium from to , but, since there is no reason to suppose that Shakespeare might have come across these emperors, it is more likely that he took the name from the story " Andronicus and the lion " in Antonio de Guevara 's Epistolas familiares.

That story involves a sadistic emperor named Titus who amused himself by throwing slaves to wild animals and watching them be slaughtered.

However, when a slave called Andronicus is thrown to a lion, the lion lies down and embraces the man. The emperor demands to know what has happened, and Andronicus explains that he had once helped the lion by removing a thorn from its foot.

Geoffrey Bullough argues that Lucius' character arc estrangement from his father, followed by banishment, followed by a glorious return to avenge his family honour was probably based on Plutarch's Life of Coriolanus.

This is the role that Lucius fulfills in the play. The name of Lavinia was probably taken from the mythological figure of Lavinia , daughter of Latinus , King of Latium , who, in Virgil 's Aeneid , courts Aeneas as he attempts to settle his people in Latium.

Hamilton speculates that the name of Tamora could have been based upon the historical figure of Tomyris , a violent and uncompromising Massagetae queen.

Hunter has suggested Shakespeare may have taken Saturninus' name from Herodian 's History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus , which features a jealous and violent tribune named Saturninus.

Bassianus' name probably came from Lucius Septimius Bassianus , better known as Caracalla, who, like Bassianus in the play, fights with his brother over succession, one appealing to primogeniture and the other to popularity.

Any discussion of the sources of Titus Andronicus is complicated by the existence of two other versions of the story; a prose history and a ballad both of which are anonymous and undated.

The first definite reference to the ballad "Titus Andronicus' Complaint" is an entry in the Stationers' Register by the printer John Danter on 6 February , where the entry "A booke intitled a Noble Roman Historye of Tytus Andronicus" is immediately followed by "Entred also vnto him, the ballad thereof".

The earliest surviving copy of the ballad is in Richard Johnson 's The Golden Garland of Princely Pleasures and Delicate Delights , but the date of its composition is unknown.

The prose was first published in chapbook form some time between and by Cluer Dicey under the title The History of Titus Andronicus, the Renowned Roman General the ballad was also included in the chapbook , however it is believed to be much older than that.

The copyright records from the Stationers' Register in Shakespeare's own lifetime provide some tenuous evidence regarding the dating of the prose.

The orthodox belief is that this entry refers to the play. However, the next version of the play to be published was for Edward White, in , printed by Edward Allde , thus prompting the question of why Pavier never published the play despite owning the copyright for nine years.

Joseph Quincy Adams, Jr. Similarly, W. Greg believes that all copyright to the play lapsed upon Danter's death in , hence the transferral from Millington to Pavier was illegitimate unless it refers to something other than the play; i.

Both scholars conclude that the evidence seems to imply the prose existed by early at the latest. However, even if the prose was in existence by , there is no solid evidence to suggest the order in which the play, ballad and prose were written and which served as source for which.

Traditionally, the prose has been seen as the original, with the play derived from it, and the ballad derived from both play and prose.

Adams Jr. For example, Ralph M. Sargent agrees with Adams and Bullough that the prose was the source of the play, but he argues that the poem was also a source of the play prose-ballad-play.

Harold Metz felt that Mincoff was incorrect and reasserted the primacy of the prose-play-ballad sequence.

Hunter however, believes that Adams, Dover Wilson, Bullough, Sargent, Mincoff and Metz were all wrong, and the play was the source for the prose, with both serving as sources for the ballad play-prose-ballad.

Waith rejects Hunter's theory and supports the original prose-play-ballad sequence. Ultimately, there is no overriding critical consensus on the issue of the order in which the play, prose and ballad were written, with the only tentative agreement being that all three were probably in existence by at the latest.

Henslowe marked the play as "ne", which most critics take to mean "new". There were subsequent performances on 29 January and 6 February.

Later in , Danter published the play in quarto under the title The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of Titus Andronicus referred to by scholars as Q1 for the booksellers Edward White and Thomas Millington, making it the first of Shakespeare's plays to be printed.

This evidence establishes that the latest possible date of composition is late There is evidence, however, that the play may have been written some years earlier than this.

Perhaps the most famous such evidence relates to a comment made in by Ben Jonson in Bartholomew Fair. In the preface, Jonson wrote "He that will swear, Jeronimo or Andronicus are the best plays, yet shall pass unexcepted at, here, as a man whose judgement shows it is constant, and hath stood still these five and twenty, or thirty years.

If Jonson is taken literally, for the play to have been between 25 and 30 years old in , it must have been written between and , a theory which not all scholars reject out of hand.

For example, in his edition of the play for the Arden Shakespeare 2nd Series, J. Maxwell argues for a date of late Honigmann, in his 'early start' theory of , suggests that Shakespeare wrote the play several years before coming to London c.

This is highly unusual in copies of Elizabethan plays , which usually refer to one company only, if any. Waith and Jacques Berthoud, for example, believe it is, it means that Sussex's Men were the last to perform the play, suggesting it had been on stage quite some time prior to 24 January The tour was a financial failure, and the company returned to London on 28 September, financially ruined.

At that point, they sold the play to Sussex's Men, who would go on to perform it on 24 January at The Rose. However, Jonathan Bate and Alan Hughes have argued that there is no evidence that the listing is chronological, and no precedent on other title pages for making that assumption.

Additionally, a later edition of the play gives a different order of acting companies — Pembroke's Men, Derby's Men, Sussex' Men and Lord Chamberlain's Men , suggesting the order is random and cannot be used to help date the play.

As such, even amongst scholars who favour a post date, is by no means universally accepted. Jacques Berthoud, for example, argues that Shakespeare had close associations with Derby's Men and "it would seem that Titus Andronicus must already have entered the repertoire of Derby's Men by the end of or the start of at the latest.

Another theory is provided by Jonathan Bate, who finds it significant that Q1 lacks the "sundry times" comment found on virtually every sixteenth-century play; the claim on a title page that a play had been performed "sundry times" was an attempt by publishers to emphasise its popularity, and its absence on Q1 indicates that the play was so new, it hadn't been performed anywhere.

Bate also finds significance in the fact that prior to the rape of Lavinia, Chiron and Demetrius vow to use Bassianus' body as a pillow.

Bate believes this connects the play to Thomas Nashe 's The Unfortunate Traveller , which was completed on 27 June The poem was written to celebrate the installation of Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland as a Knight of the Garter on 26 June Bate takes these three pieces of evidence to suggest a timeline which sees Shakespeare complete his Henry VI trilogy prior to the closing of the theatres in June At this time, he turns to classical antiquity to aid him in his poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece.

Then, towards the end of , with the prospect of the theatres being reopened, and with the classical material still fresh in his mind, he wrote Titus as his first tragedy, shortly after reading Nashe's novel and Peele's poem, all of which suggests a date of composition of late Other critics have attempted to use more scientific methods to determine the date of the play.

For example, Gary Taylor has employed stylometry , particularly the study of contractions , colloquialisms , rare words and function words.

As such, Taylor settles on a date of mid for Titus. He also argues that 3. However, if the play was written and performed by Hughes , Maxwell , Berthoud , Waith and Taylor , or Bate , why did Henslowe refer to it as "ne" in ?

Foakes and R. Rickert, modern editors of Henslowe's Diary , argue that "ne" could refer to a newly licensed play, which would make sense if one accepts Waith's argument that Pembroke's Men had sold the rights to Sussex's Men upon returning from their failed tour of the provinces.

Foakes and Rickert also point out that "ne" could refer to a newly revised play, suggesting editing on Shakespeare's part some time in late Brian Vickers , amongst others, finds Frazer's arguments convincing, which renders interpretation of Henslow's entry even more complex.

The quarto text of the play, with the same title, was reprinted by James Roberts for Edward White in Q2. On 19 April , Millington sold his share in the copyright to Thomas Pavier.

However, the next version of the play was published again for White, in , under the slightly altered title The Most Lamentable Tragedie of Titus Andronicus , printed by Edward Allde Q3.

Q1 is considered a 'good text' i. Q2 appears to be based on a damaged copy of Q1, as it is missing a number of lines which are replaced by what appear to be guess work on the part of the compositor.

Q3 is a further degradation of Q2, and includes a number of corrections to the Q2 text, but introduces many more errors.

The First Folio text of F1 , under the title The Lamentable Tragedy of Titus Andronicus , is based primarily on the Q3 text which is why modern editors use Q1 as the control rather than the usual practice in Shakespeare of using the Folio text.

However, the Folio text includes material found in none of the quarto editions, primarily Act 3, Scene 2 also called the 'fly-killing scene'.

It is believed that while Q3 was probably the main source for the Folio , an annotated prompter 's copy was also used, particularly in relation to stage directions, which differ significantly from all of the quarto texts.

As such, the text of the play that is today known as Titus Andronicus involves a combination of material from Q1 and F1, the vast majority of which is taken from Q1.

An important piece of evidence relating to both the dating and text of Titus is the so-called 'Peacham drawing' or 'Longleat manuscript'; the only surviving contemporary Shakespearean illustration, now residing in the library of the Marquess of Bath at Longleat.

The drawing appears to depict a performance of Titus , under which is quoted some dialogue. Eugene M. Waith argues of the illustration that "the gestures and costumes give us a more vivid impression of the visual impact of Elizabethan acting than we get from any other source.

Far from being an acknowledged source of evidence however, the document has provoked varying interpretations, with its date in particular often called into question.

The fact that the text reproduced in the drawing seems to borrow from Q1, Q2, Q3 and F1, whilst also inventing some of its own readings, further complicates matters.

Additionally, a possible association with Shakespearean forger John Payne Collier has served to undermine its authenticity, whilst some scholars believe it depicts a play other than Titus Andronicus , and is therefore of limited use to Shakespeareans.

Although Titus was extremely popular in its day, over the course of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries it became perhaps Shakespeare's most maligned play, and it was only in the latter half of the 20th century that this pattern of denigration showed any signs of subsiding.

One of the earliest, and one of the most famous critical disparagements of the play occurred in , in the introduction to Edward Ravenscroft 's theatrical adaptation, Titus Andronicus, or the Rape of Lavinia.

A Tragedy, Alter'd from Mr. Shakespeare's Works. Speaking of the original play, Ravenscroft wrote, "'tis the most incorrect and indigested piece in all his works.

It seems rather a heap of rubbish than a structure. Eliot famously argued that it was "one of the stupidest and most uninspired plays ever written, a play in which it is incredible that Shakespeare had any hand at all, a play in which the best passages would be too highly honoured by the signature of Peele.

However, although the play continued to have its detractors, it began to acquire its champions as well. In his book, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human , Harold Bloom defended Titus from various critical attacks it's had over the years, insisting the play is meant to be a "parody" and it's only bad "if you take it straight.

Another champion came in , when Jacques Berthoud pointed out that until shortly after World War II , " Titus Andronicus was taken seriously only by a handful of textual and bibliographic scholars.

Readers, when they could be found, mostly regarded it as a contemptible farrago of violence and bombast, while theatrical managers treated it as either a script in need of radical rewriting, or as a show-biz opportunity for a star actor.

One such scholar was Jan Kott. Speaking of its apparent gratuitous violence, Kott argued that. Titus Andronicus is by no means the most brutal of Shakespeare's plays.

More people die in Richard III. King Lear is a much more cruel play. In the whole Shakespearean repertory I can find no scene so revolting as Cordelia's death.

In reading, the cruelties of Titus can seem ridiculous. But I have seen it on the stage and found it a moving experience. In watching Titus Andronicus we come to understand — perhaps more than by looking at any other Shakespeare play — the nature of his genius: he gave an inner awareness to passions; cruelty ceased to be merely physical.

Shakespeare discovered the moral hell. He discovered heaven as well. But he remained on earth. In his edition of the play for the Contemporary Shakespeare series, A.

Rowse speculates as to why the fortunes of the play have begun to change during the 20th century; "in the civilised Victorian age the play could not be performed because it could not be believed.

Such is the horror of our own age, with the appalling barbarities of prison camps and resistance movements paralleling the torture and mutilation and feeding on human flesh of the play, that it has ceased to be improbable.

Director Julie Taymor , who staged a production Off-Broadway in and directed a film version in , says she was drawn to the play because she found it to be the most "relevant of Shakespeare's plays for the modern era.

Perhaps the most frequently discussed topic in the play's critical history is that of authorship. None of the three quarto editions of Titus name the author, which was normal for Elizabethan plays.

However, Francis Meres does list the play as one of Shakespeare's tragedies in Palladis Tamia in As such, with what little available solid evidence suggesting that Shakespeare did indeed write the play, questions of authorship tend to focus on the perceived lack of quality in the writing, and often the play's resemblance to the work of contemporaneous dramatists.

So strong had the anti-Shakespearean movement become during the eighteenth century that in , Thomas Percy wrote in the introduction to Reliques of Ancient English Poetry , "Shakespeare's memory has been fully vindicated from the charge of writing the play by the best critics.

However, despite the fact that so many Shakespearean scholars believed the play to have been written by someone other than Shakespeare, there were those throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth century who argued against this theory.

One such scholar was Edward Capell , who, in , said that the play was badly written but asserted that Shakespeare did write it.

Another major scholar to support Shakespeare's authorship was Charles Knight in Several years later, a number of prominent German Shakespeareans also voiced their belief that Shakespeare wrote the play, including A.

Schlegel and Hermann Ulrici. Twentieth century criticism moved away from trying to prove or disprove that Shakespeare wrote the play, and has instead come to focus on the issue of co-authorship.

Ravenscroft had hinted at this in , but the first modern scholar to look at the theory was John Mackinnon Robertson in , who concluded that "much of the play is written by George Peele, and it is hardly less certain that much of the rest was written by Robert Greene or Kyd, with some by Marlow.

Parrott reached the conclusion that Peele wrote Act 1, 2. The first major critic to challenge Robertson, Parrott and Timberlake was E.

Chambers , who successfully exposed inherent flaws in Robertson's methodology. Sampley employed the techniques of Parrott to argue against Peele as co-author, [75] and in , Hereward Thimbleby Price also argued that Shakespeare wrote alone.

Beginning in , with John Dover Wilson, many scholars have tended to favour the theory that Shakespeare and Peele collaborated in some way.

Dover Wilson, for his part, believed that Shakespeare edited a play originally written by Peele. Hill approached the issue by analysing the distribution of rhetorical devices in the play.

Like Parrott in and Timberlake in , he ultimately concluded that Peele wrote Act 1, 2. His findings also suggested that Peele wrote Act 1, 2.

However, there have always been scholars who believe that Shakespeare worked on the play alone. Many of the editors of the various twentieth century scholarly editions of the play for example, have argued against the co-authorship theory; Eugene M.

In the case of Bate however, in , he came out in support of Brian Vickers' book Shakespeare, Co-Author which restates the case for Peele as the author of Act 1, 2.

Vickers' analysis of the issue is the most extensive yet undertaken. As well as analysing the distribution of a large number of rhetorical devices throughout the play, he also devised three new authorship tests; an analysis of polysyllabic words, an analysis of the distribution of alliteration and an analysis of vocatives.

His findings led him to assert, with complete confidence, that Peele wrote Act 1, 2. The language of Titus has always had a central role in criticism of the play insofar as those who doubt Shakespeare's authorship have often pointed to the apparent deficiencies in the language as evidence of that claim.

However, the quality of the language has had its defenders over the years, critics who argue that the play is more linguistically complex than is often thought, and features a more accomplished use of certain linguistic motifs than has hitherto been allowed for.

One of the most basic such motifs is repetition. Several words and topics occur time and again, serving to connect and contrast characters and scenes, and to foreground certain themes.

Perhaps the most obvious recurring motifs are those of honour , virtue and nobility , all of which are mentioned multiple times throughout the play, especially during the first act; the play's opening line is Saturninus' address to "Noble patricians , patrons of my right" l.

From this point onwards, the concept of nobility is at the heart of everything that happens. Charlton argues of this opening Act that "the standard of moral currency most in use is honour.

Marcus' reference to Titus' name is even itself an allusion to his nobility insofar as Titus' full title Titus Pius is an honorary epitaph which "refers to his devotion to patriotic duty.

Once Titus has arrived on-stage, it is not long before he too is speaking of honour, virtue and integrity, referring to the family tomb as a "sweet cell of virtue and nobility" l.

After Titus chooses Saturninus as Emperor, they praise one another's honour, with Saturninus referring to Titus' "honourable family" ll.

Even when things begin to go awry for the Andronici, each one maintains a firm grasp of his own interpretation of honour. The death of Mutius comes about because Titus and his sons have different concepts of honour; Titus feels the Emperor's desires should have precedence, his sons that Roman law should govern all, including the Emperor.

At this point, Marcus, Martius, Quintus and Lucius declare of the slain Mutius, "He lives in fame, that died in virtue's cause" ll.

Other characters also become involved in the affray resulting from the disagreement among the Andronici, and they too are equally concerned with honour.

Then, in a surprising move, Tamora suggests to Saturninus that he should forgive Titus and his family. Not so, my lord; the gods of Rome forefend I should be author to dishonour you.

But on mine honour dare I undertake For good Lord Titus' innocence in all, Whose fury not dissembled speaks his griefs. Then at my suit look graciously on him; Lose not so noble a friend on vain suppose.

The irony here, of course, is that her false appeal to honour is what begins the bloody cycle of revenge which dominates the rest of the play. Although not all subsequent scenes are as heavily saturated with references to honour, nobility and virtue as is the opening, they are continually alluded to throughout the play.

Later, after the Clown has delivered Titus' letter to Saturninus, Saturninus declares "Go, drag the villain hither by the hair.

A further significant motif is metaphor related to violence; "the world of Titus is not simply one of meaningless acts of random violence but rather one in which language engenders violence and violence is done to language through the distance between word and thing, between metaphor and what it represents.

No discussion of the language of Titus is complete without reference to Marcus's speech upon finding Lavinia after her rape:. Who is this? My niece that flies away so fast?

Cousin, a word: where is your husband? If I do dream, would all my wealth would wake me! If I do wake, some Planet strike me down, That I may slumber in eternal sleep!

Speak, gentle niece, what stern ungentle hands Hath lopped, and hewed and made thy body bare Of her two branches, those sweet ornaments, Whose circling shadows, Kings have sought to sleep in, And might not gain so great a happiness As half thy love?

Why dost not speak to me? Alas, a crimson river of warm blood, Like to a bubbling fountain stirred with wind, Doth rise and fall between thy ros'd lips, Coming and going with thy honey breath.

But sure some Tereus hath deflowered thee, And, lest thou should'st detect him, cut thy tongue. Ah, now thou turn'st away thy face for shame; And notwithstanding all this loss of blood, As from a conduit with three issuing spouts, Yet do thy cheeks look red as Titan's face, Blushing to be encountered with a cloud.

Shall I speak for thee? Shall I say 'tis so? O, that I knew thy heart, and knew the beast, That I might rail at him to ease my mind!

Sorrow conceal'd, like an oven stopped, Doth burn the heart to cinders where it is. Fair Philomela, why she but lost her tongue, And in a tedious sampler sewed her mind; But, lovely niece, that mean is cut from thee.

A craftier Tereus, cousin, hast thou met, And he hath cut those pretty fingers off, That could have better sowed then Philomel. O, had the monster seen those lily hands Tremble, like aspen leaves , upon a lute , And make the silken strings delight to kiss them, He would not then have touched them for his life.

Or, had he heard the heavenly harmony Which that sweet tongue hath made, He would have dropped his knife and fell asleep, As Cerberus at the Thracian poet's feet.

Come, let us go, and make thy father blind, For such a sight will blind a father's eye. One hour's storm will drown the fragrant meads; What will whole months of tears thy father's eyes?

Do not draw back, for we will mourn with thee; O, could our mourning ease thy misery! In this much discussed speech, the discrepancy between the beautiful imagery and the horrific sight before us has been noted by many critics as jarring, and the speech is often severely edited or completely removed for performance; in the RSC production, for example, director Peter Brook cut the speech entirely.

There is also a great deal of disagreement amongst critics as to the essential meaning of the speech. John Dover Wilson, for example, sees it as nothing more than a parody, Shakespeare mocking the work of his contemporaries by writing something so bad.

He finds no other tonally analogous speech in all of Shakespeare, concluding it is "a bundle of ill-matched conceits held together by sticky sentimentalism.

Waith determines that the speech is an aesthetic failure that may have looked good on the page but which is incongruous in performance.

However, defenders of the play have posited several theories which seek to illustrate the thematic relevance of the speech.

For example, Nicholas Brooke argues that it "stands in the place of a choric commentary on the crime, establishing its significance to the play by making an emblem of the mutilated woman.

Another theory is suggested by Anthony Brian Taylor, who argues simply that Marcus is babbling; "beginning with references to "dream" and "slumber" and ending with one to sleep, the speech is an old man's reverie; shaken by the horrible and totally unexpected spectacle before him, he has succumbed to the senile tendency to drift away and become absorbed in his own thoughts rather than confront the harshness of reality.

Bate thus sees it as an illustration of language's ability to "bring back that which has been lost," i.

Lavinia's beauty and innocence is figuratively returned in the beauty of the language. Palmer feels that the speech is an attempt to rationalise in Marcus' own mind the sheer horror of what he is seeing;.

Marcus' lament is an effort to realise a sight that taxes to the utmost the powers of understanding and utterance. The vivid conceits in which he pictures his hapless niece do not transform or depersonalise her: she is already transformed and depersonalised Far from being a retreat from the awful reality into some aesthetic distance, then, Marcus' conceits dwell upon this figure that is to him both familiar and strange, fair and hideous, living body and object: this is, and is not, Lavinia.

Lavinia's plight is literally unutterable Marcus' formal lament articulates unspeakable woes. Here and throughout the play the response to the intolerable is ritualised, in language and action, because ritual is the ultimate means by which man seeks to order and control his precarious and unstable world.

In contradistinction to Dover Wilson and Waith, several scholars have argued that whilst the speech may not work on the page, it can work in performance.

Discussing the Deborah Warner RSC production at The Swan in , which used an unedited text, Stanley Wells argues that Donald Sumpter 's delivery of the speech "became a deeply moving attempt to master the facts and thus to overcome the emotional shock of a previously unimagined horror.

We had the sense of a suspension of time, as if the speech represented an articulation, necessarily extended in expression, of a sequence of thoughts and emotions, that might have taken no more than a second or two to flash through the character's mind, like a bad dream.

Dessen writes "we observe Marcus, step-by-step, use his logic and Lavinia's reactions to work out what has happened, so that the spectators both see Lavinia directly and see through his eyes and images.

In the process the horror of the situation is filtered through a human consciousness in a way difficult to describe but powerful to experience.

Looking at the language of the play in a more general sense has also produced a range of critical theories.

For example, Jacques Berthoud argues that the rhetoric of the play is explicitly bound up with its theme; "the entire dramatic script, soliloquies included, functions as a network of responses and reactions.

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This is because we offer this service to our clients for free. The irony here, of course, is that her false appeal to honour is what begins the bloody cycle of revenge which dominates the rest of the play.

Although not all subsequent scenes are as heavily saturated with references to honour, nobility and virtue as is the opening, they are continually alluded to throughout the play.

Later, after the Clown has delivered Titus' letter to Saturninus, Saturninus declares "Go, drag the villain hither by the hair. A further significant motif is metaphor related to violence; "the world of Titus is not simply one of meaningless acts of random violence but rather one in which language engenders violence and violence is done to language through the distance between word and thing, between metaphor and what it represents.

No discussion of the language of Titus is complete without reference to Marcus's speech upon finding Lavinia after her rape:.

Who is this? My niece that flies away so fast? Cousin, a word: where is your husband? If I do dream, would all my wealth would wake me!

If I do wake, some Planet strike me down, That I may slumber in eternal sleep! Speak, gentle niece, what stern ungentle hands Hath lopped, and hewed and made thy body bare Of her two branches, those sweet ornaments, Whose circling shadows, Kings have sought to sleep in, And might not gain so great a happiness As half thy love?

Why dost not speak to me? Alas, a crimson river of warm blood, Like to a bubbling fountain stirred with wind, Doth rise and fall between thy ros'd lips, Coming and going with thy honey breath.

But sure some Tereus hath deflowered thee, And, lest thou should'st detect him, cut thy tongue. Ah, now thou turn'st away thy face for shame; And notwithstanding all this loss of blood, As from a conduit with three issuing spouts, Yet do thy cheeks look red as Titan's face, Blushing to be encountered with a cloud.

Shall I speak for thee? Shall I say 'tis so? O, that I knew thy heart, and knew the beast, That I might rail at him to ease my mind! Sorrow conceal'd, like an oven stopped, Doth burn the heart to cinders where it is.

Fair Philomela, why she but lost her tongue, And in a tedious sampler sewed her mind; But, lovely niece, that mean is cut from thee.

A craftier Tereus, cousin, hast thou met, And he hath cut those pretty fingers off, That could have better sowed then Philomel.

O, had the monster seen those lily hands Tremble, like aspen leaves , upon a lute , And make the silken strings delight to kiss them, He would not then have touched them for his life.

Or, had he heard the heavenly harmony Which that sweet tongue hath made, He would have dropped his knife and fell asleep, As Cerberus at the Thracian poet's feet.

Come, let us go, and make thy father blind, For such a sight will blind a father's eye. One hour's storm will drown the fragrant meads; What will whole months of tears thy father's eyes?

Do not draw back, for we will mourn with thee; O, could our mourning ease thy misery! In this much discussed speech, the discrepancy between the beautiful imagery and the horrific sight before us has been noted by many critics as jarring, and the speech is often severely edited or completely removed for performance; in the RSC production, for example, director Peter Brook cut the speech entirely.

There is also a great deal of disagreement amongst critics as to the essential meaning of the speech. John Dover Wilson, for example, sees it as nothing more than a parody, Shakespeare mocking the work of his contemporaries by writing something so bad.

He finds no other tonally analogous speech in all of Shakespeare, concluding it is "a bundle of ill-matched conceits held together by sticky sentimentalism.

Waith determines that the speech is an aesthetic failure that may have looked good on the page but which is incongruous in performance. However, defenders of the play have posited several theories which seek to illustrate the thematic relevance of the speech.

For example, Nicholas Brooke argues that it "stands in the place of a choric commentary on the crime, establishing its significance to the play by making an emblem of the mutilated woman.

Another theory is suggested by Anthony Brian Taylor, who argues simply that Marcus is babbling; "beginning with references to "dream" and "slumber" and ending with one to sleep, the speech is an old man's reverie; shaken by the horrible and totally unexpected spectacle before him, he has succumbed to the senile tendency to drift away and become absorbed in his own thoughts rather than confront the harshness of reality.

Bate thus sees it as an illustration of language's ability to "bring back that which has been lost," i. Lavinia's beauty and innocence is figuratively returned in the beauty of the language.

Palmer feels that the speech is an attempt to rationalise in Marcus' own mind the sheer horror of what he is seeing;. Marcus' lament is an effort to realise a sight that taxes to the utmost the powers of understanding and utterance.

The vivid conceits in which he pictures his hapless niece do not transform or depersonalise her: she is already transformed and depersonalised Far from being a retreat from the awful reality into some aesthetic distance, then, Marcus' conceits dwell upon this figure that is to him both familiar and strange, fair and hideous, living body and object: this is, and is not, Lavinia.

Lavinia's plight is literally unutterable Marcus' formal lament articulates unspeakable woes. Here and throughout the play the response to the intolerable is ritualised, in language and action, because ritual is the ultimate means by which man seeks to order and control his precarious and unstable world.

In contradistinction to Dover Wilson and Waith, several scholars have argued that whilst the speech may not work on the page, it can work in performance.

Discussing the Deborah Warner RSC production at The Swan in , which used an unedited text, Stanley Wells argues that Donald Sumpter 's delivery of the speech "became a deeply moving attempt to master the facts and thus to overcome the emotional shock of a previously unimagined horror.

We had the sense of a suspension of time, as if the speech represented an articulation, necessarily extended in expression, of a sequence of thoughts and emotions, that might have taken no more than a second or two to flash through the character's mind, like a bad dream.

Dessen writes "we observe Marcus, step-by-step, use his logic and Lavinia's reactions to work out what has happened, so that the spectators both see Lavinia directly and see through his eyes and images.

In the process the horror of the situation is filtered through a human consciousness in a way difficult to describe but powerful to experience.

Looking at the language of the play in a more general sense has also produced a range of critical theories. For example, Jacques Berthoud argues that the rhetoric of the play is explicitly bound up with its theme; "the entire dramatic script, soliloquies included, functions as a network of responses and reactions.

Using the example of Marcus' speech, Reese argues that the audience is disconnected from the violence through the seemingly incongruent descriptions of that violence.

Such language serves to "further emphasise the artificiality of the play; in a sense, they suggest to the audience that it is hearing a poem read rather than seeing the events of that poem put into dramatic form.

This, however, "disrupts the way the audience perceives imagery. Another theory is provided by Peter M. Sacks , who argues that the language of the play is marked by "an artificial and heavily emblematic style, and above all a revoltingly grotesque series of horrors which seem to have little function but to ironise man's inadequate expressions of pain and loss".

Although Henslowe doesn't specify a theatre, it was most likely The Rose. Repeated performances were staged on 28 January and 6 February.

Some scholars, however, have suggested that the January performance may not be the first recorded performance of the play. Chambers, have identified with Shakespeare's play.

The two were subjects of many narratives at the time, and a play about them would not have been unusual. Although it is known that the play was definitely popular in its day, there is no other recorded performance for many years.

During the late seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, adaptations of the play came to dominate the stage, and after the Burley performance in and the possible Blackfriars performance some time prior to , there is no definite recorded performance of the Shakespearean text in England until the early twentieth century.

After over years absent from the English stage, the play returned on 8 October , in a production directed by Robert Atkins at The Old Vic , as part of the Vic's presentation of the complete dramatic works over a seven-year period.

Reviews at the time praised Hayes' performance but criticised Walter's as monotonous. Critically, the production met with mixed reviews, some welcoming the return of the original play to the stage, some questioning why Atkins had bothered when various adaptations were much better and still extant.

Nevertheless, the play was a huge box office success, one of the most successful in the Complete Works presentation.

Berdan and E. The cast list for this production has been lost. Brook had been offered the chance to direct Macbeth but had controversially turned it down, and instead decided to stage Titus.

Olivier in particular was singled out for his performance and for making Titus a truly sympathetic character. Trewin for example, wrote "the actor had thought himself into the hell of Titus; we forgot the inadequacy of the words in the spell of the projection.

Edward Trostle Jones summed up the style of the production as employing "stylised distancing effects. Some reviewers however, found the production too beautified, making it unrealistic, with several commenting on the cleanness of Lavinia's face after her tongue has supposedly been cut out.

After its hugely successful Royal Shakespeare Theatre run, the play went on tour around Europe.

No video recordings of the production are known, although there are many photographs available. The success of the Brook production seems to have provided an impetus for directors to tackle the play, and ever since , there has been a steady stream of performances on the English and American stages.

After Brook, the next major production came in , when Douglas Seale directed an extremely graphic and realistic presentation at the Centre Stage in Baltimore with costumes that recalled the various combatants in World War II.

Seale's production employed a strong sense of theatrical realism to make parallels between the contemporary period and that of Titus , and thus comment on the universality of violence and revenge.

Seale set the play in the s and made pointed parallels with concentration camps , the massacre at Katyn , the Nuremberg Rallies and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings.

Saturninus was based on Benito Mussolini and all his followers dressed entirely in black; Titus was modelled after a Prussian Army officer; the Andronici wore Nazi insignia and the Goths at the end of the play were dressed in Allied Forces uniforms; the murders in the last scene are all carried out by gunfire, and at the end of the play swastikas rained down onto the stage.

The play received mixed reviews with many critics wondering why Seale had chosen to associate the Andronici with Nazism , arguing that it created a mixed metaphor.

Freedman had seen Seale's production and felt it failed because it worked by "bringing into play our sense of reality in terms of detail and literal time structure.

Freedman argued that "if one wants to create a fresh emotional response to the violence, blood and multiple mutilations of Titus Andronicus , one must shock the imagination and subconscious with visual images that recall the richness and depth of primitive rituals.

Additionally, the violence was stylised; instead of swords and daggers, wands were used and no contact was ever made. The colour scheme was hallucinatory, changing mid-scene.

Characters wore classic masks of comedy and tragedy. The slaughter in the final scene was accomplished symbolically by having each character wrapped in a red robe as they died.

A narrator was also used played by Charles Dance , who, prior to each act, would announce what was going to happen in the upcoming act, thus undercutting any sense of realism.

The production received generally positive reviews, with Mildred Kuner arguing " Symbolism rather than gory realism was what made this production so stunning.

Colin Blakely and John Wood as a vicious and maniacal Saturninus received particularly positive reviews. This production took the realistic approach and did not shirk from the more specific aspects of the violence; for example, Lavinia has trouble walking after the rape, which, it is implied, was anal rape.

Nunn believed the play asked profound questions about the sustainability of Elizabethan society, and as such, he linked the play to the contemporary period to ask the same questions of late twentieth-century England; he was "less concerned with the condition of ancient Rome than with the morality of contemporary life.

At the end of 4. Also in this vein, the play opened with a group of people paying homage to a waxwork of an obese emperor reclining on a couch and clutching a bunch of grapes.

Bedford went with neither stylisation nor realism; instead the violence simply tended to happen off-stage, but everything else was realistically presented.

The play received mixed reviews with some praising its restraint and others arguing that the suppression of the violence went too far. Many cited the final scene, where despite three onstage stabbings, not one drop of blood was visible, and the reveal of Lavinia, where she was totally bloodless despite her mutilation.

This production cut Lucius' final speech and instead ended with Aaron alone on the stage as Sibyl predicts the fall of Rome in lines written by Bedford himself.

Met with almost universally positive reviews, Jonathan Bate regards it as the finest production of any Shakespearean play of the entire s.

Opting for a realist presentation, the play had a warning posted in the pit "This play contains scenes which some people may find disturbing," and numerous critics noted how, after the interval at many shows, empty seats had appeared in the audience.

Young as Aaron. Campbell presented Titus in a much more sympathetic light than usual; for example, he kills Mutius by accident, pushing him so that he falls against a tree, and his refusal to allow Mutius to be buried was performed as if in a dream state.

Standing at six foot four, his Aaron was purposely designed to be the most physically imposing character on the stage.

Additionally, he was often positioned as standing on hills and tables, with the rest of the cast below him. When he appears with the Goths, he is not their prisoner, but willingly enters their camp in pursuit of his baby, the implication being that without this one weakness, he would have been invincible.

The production featured a prologue and epilogue set in the modern era, foregrounded the character of Young Lucius, who acts as a kind of choric observer of events, and starred Robert Stattel as Titus, Melinda Mullins as Tamora, Harry Lennix as Aaron and Miriam Healy-Louie as Lavinia.

Heavily inspired in her design by Joel-Peter Witkin , Taymor used stone columns to represent the people of Rome, who she saw as silent and incapable of expressing any individuality or subjectivity.

Although Doran explicitly denied any political overtones, the play was set in a modern African context and made explicit parallels to South African politics.

In his production notes, which Doran co-wrote with Sher, he stated, "Surely, to be relevant, theatre must have an umbilical connection to the lives of the people watching it.

Writing in Plays International in August , Robert Lloyd Parry argued "the questions raised by Titus went far beyond the play itself [to] many of the tensions that exist in the new South Africa; the gulf of mistrust that still exists between blacks and whites Titus Andronicus has proved itself to be political theatre in the truest sense.

Convinced that Act 1 was by George Peele, Alexander felt he was not undermining the integrity of Shakespeare by drastically altering it; for example, Saturninus and Tamora are present throughout, they never leave the stage; there is no division between the upper and lower levels; all mention of Mutius is absent; and over lines were removed.

In , two major productions were staged within a few weeks of one another. Bailey focused on a realistic presentation throughout the production; for example, after her mutilation, Lavinia is covered from head to toe in blood, with her stumps crudely bandaged, and raw flesh visible beneath.

So graphic was Bailey's use of realism that at several productions, audience members fainted upon Lavinia's appearance. The decision was taken by designer William Dudley , who took as his inspiration a feature of the Colosseum known as a velarium — a cooling system which consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the centre.

Dudley made it as a PVC awning which was intended to darken the auditorium. Performed in Japanese, the original English text was projected as surtitles onto the back of the stage.

In stark contrast to Bailey's production, theatricality was emphasised; the play begins with the company still rehearsing and getting into costume and the stage hands still putting the sets together.

The production followed the Brook production in its depiction of violence; actress Hitomi Manaka appeared after the rape scene with stylised red ribbons coming from her mouth and arms, substituting for blood.

Throughout the play, at the back of the stage, a huge marble wolf can be seen from which feed Romulus and Remus , with the implication being that Rome is a society based on animalistic origins.

The play ends with Young Lucius holding Aaron's baby out to the audience and crying out " The horror! The horror! Several reviews of the time made much of the manner in which each production approached the appearance of Lavinia after the rape; "At Shakespeare's Globe, the groundlings are fainting at the mutilations in Lucy Bailey's coarse but convincing production.

To Stratford-upon-Avon, Yukio Ninagawa brings a Japanese staging so stylised that it keeps turning the horror into visual poetry. It's the production's most powerful symbolic image, redolent of the dehumanising effects of war.

Benedict Nightingale of The Times , for example, asked "is it enough to suggest bloodletting by having red ribbons flow from wrists and throats?

Cruelty was stylised; the visceral became the aesthetic. You might think that this method had a cushioning effect.

In fact it concentrates and heightens the horror. I am just trying to express these things in a different way from any previous production.

Distancing itself from the violence it stages thanks to "dissonance," the production presents Lavinia onstage as if she were a painting Ninagawa's work distances itself from cruelty, as the spectacle of suffering is stylised.

Ribbons that represent blood The production received generally very favourable reviews. In , Michael Sexton directed a modern military dress production at The Public Theater on a minimalistic set made of plywood boards.

The production had a low budget and much of it was spent on huge volumes of blood that literally drenched the actors in the final scene, as Sexton said he was determined to outdo his contemporaries in terms of the amount of on-stage blood in the play.

The production starred Jay O. Emphasising the gore and violence, the production carried a trailer with warnings of "graphic imagery and scenes of butchery.

The production contrasted a military and modern Goth culture, but quickly disintegrated into an anarchic state, stressing the black comedy of the play.

The first known adaptation of the play originated in the later years of the sixteenth century. In , a German publication entitled Englische Comedien und Tragedien contained a play called Eine sehr klägliche Tragaedia von Tito Andronico und der hoffertigen Käyserin darinnen denckwürdige actiones zubefinden A most lamentable tragedy of Titus Andronicus and the haughty empress, wherein are found memorable events.

Transcribed by Frederick Menius, the play was a version of Titus performed by Robert Browne and John Greene's group of travelling players. The overriding plot of Tito Andronico is identical to Titus , but all the character names are different, with the exception of Titus himself.

Written in prose, the play does not feature the fly killing scene 3. Another European adaptation came in , when Dutch dramatist Jan Vos wrote a version of the play entitled Aran en Titus , which was published in , and republished in , , and , illustrating its popularity.

The play may have been based on a work, now lost, by Adriaen Van den Bergh , which may itself have been a composite of the English Titus and the German Tito Andronico.

Vos' play focuses on Aaron, who, in the final scene, is burned alive on stage, beginning a tradition amongst adaptations of foregrounding the Moor and ending the play with his death.

It was revived again in and The play was revived again in and with John Bickerstaff as Aaron and with Thomas Walker in the role.

Rich's actors had little Shakespearean experience, and Quin was soon advertised as the main attraction. In , the adaptation was presented twice at Lincoln, both times with Quin as Aaron.

Ravenscroft made drastic alterations to the play. He removed all of 2. Much of the violence was toned down; for example both the murder of Chiron and Demetrius and Titus' amputation take place off stage.

A significant change in the first scene, and one with major implications for the rest of the play, is that prior to the sacrifice of Alarbus, it is revealed that several years previously, Tamora had one of Titus' sons in captivity and refused to show him clemency despite Titus' pleas.

Aaron has a much larger role in Ravenscroft than in Shakespeare, especially in Act 1, where lines originally assigned to Demetrius and Tamora are given to him.

Tamora doesn't give birth during the action, but earlier, with the baby secretly kept by a nurse. To maintain the secret, Aaron kills the nurse, and it is the nurse's husband, not Lucius, who captures Aaron as he leaves Rome with the child.

Additionally, Lucius' army is not composed of Goths, but of Roman centurions loyal to the Andronici. The last act is also considerably longer; Tamora and Saturninus both have lengthy speeches after their fatal stabbings.

Tamora asks for her child to be brought to her, but she stabs it immediately upon receiving it. In January and February an adaptation written and directed by and also starring Nathaniel Bannister was performed for four nights at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia.

The playbill had a note reading "The manager, in announcing this play, adapted by N. Bannister from the language of Shakespeare alone, assures the public that every expression calculated to offend the ear, has been studiously avoided, and the play is presented for their decision with full confidence that it will merit approbation.

The most successful adaptation of the play in Britain premiered in , written by Ira Aldridge and C. Aaron was rewritten to make him the hero of the piece played by Aldridge , the rape and mutilation of Lavinia were removed, Tamora Queen of Scythia became chaste and honourable, with Aaron as her friend only, and Chiron and Demetrius act only out of love for their mother.

Only Saturninus is a truly evil character. Towards the end of the play, Saturninus has Aaron chained to a tree, and his baby flung into the Tiber.

Aaron frees himself however and leaps into the river after the child. At the end, Saturninus poisons Aaron, but as Aaron dies, Lavinia promises to look after his child for him, due to his saving her from rape earlier in the piece.

An entire scene from Zaraffa, the Slave King , a play written specifically for Aldridge in Dublin in was included in this adaptation.

The deflowerment of Lavinia, cutting out her tongue, chopping off her hands, and the numerous decapitations which occur in the original, are wholly omitted, and a play not only presentable but actually attractive is the result.

Aaron is elevated into a noble and lofty character; Tamora, the queen of Scythia, is a chaste though decidedly strong-minded female, and her connection with the Moor appears to be of legitimate description; her sons Chiron and Demetrius are dutiful children, obeying the behests of their mother.

Thus altered, Mr. Aldridge's conception of the part of Aaron is excellent — gentle and impassioned by turns; now burning with jealousy as he doubts the honour of the Queen; anon, fierce with rage, as he reflects upon the wrongs which have been done him — the murder of Alarbus and the abduction of his son; and then all tenderness and emotion in the gentler passages with his infant.

The next adaptation was in , when Kenneth Tynan and Peter Myers staged a thirty-five minute version entitled Andronicus as part of a Grand Guignol presentation at the Irving Theatre.

Produced in the tradition of Theatre of Cruelty , the production edited together all of the violent scenes, emphasised the gore, and removed Aaron entirely.

In a review in the Sunday Times on 11 November, Harold Hobson wrote the stage was full of "practically the whole company waving gory stumps and eating cannibal pies.

In the Old Vic staged a heavily edited ninety-minute performance as part of a double bill with an edited version of The Comedy of Errors.

Performed in the manner of a traditional Elizabethan production, the play received mixed reviews. The Times , for example, felt that the juxtaposition of the blood tragedy and the frothy comedy was "ill-conceived".

Of the adaptation he wrote "it represents an attempt to render Shakespeare's early chaotic work fit for the German stage without having the Shakespearean atrocities and grotesqueries passed over in silence.

Another major change is that after Aaron is presented with his love child, he flees Rome immediately, and successfully, and is never heard from again.

Dürrenmatt also added a new scene, where Lucius arrives at the Goth camp and persuades their leader, Alarich, to help him.

At the end of the play, after Lucius has stabbed Saturninus, but before he has given his final speech, Alarich betrays him, kills him, and orders his army to destroy Rome and kill everyone in it.

Theatricality and falseness were emphasised, and when actors were off stage, they could be seen at the sides of the stage watching the performance.

The production received lukewarm reviews, and had an average box office. A Shakespearean Commentary. Müller removed the entire first act, replacing it was a narrated introduction, and completely rewrote the final act.

He described the work as "terrorist in nature", and foregrounded the violence; for example Lavinia is brutally raped on stage and Aaron takes several hacks at Titus' hand before amputating it.

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